EPPO -

 

European and Mediterranean

Plant Protection Organization

2019/098 Update on the situation of Xylotrechus chinensis in France

 

In France, the presence of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO Alert List) was officially reported in October 2018 (EPPO RS 2018/220). A recent paper provides additional information about the situation in France and reviews the biological data that is currently available about the pest.

 

In France, two isolated outbreaks have been reported in Gironde and Hérault departments. The origin of these introductions remains unknown, but it is noted that, in both departments, the close proximity of seaports with large imports of goods with wood packaging material might have played a role. For the moment, it is also not known whether these findings correspond to established populations or not.

 

In Gironde department, an adult specimen of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO Alert List) was observed and photographed on the balcony of a private home in the municipality of Le Bouscat on the 13th of July 2018.

 

In Hérault department, X. chinensis has been reported twice from the municipality of Sète.

In October 2017, unknown cerambycid larvae were collected from a Morus bombycis tree in a private garden. The identity of one larva was later confirmed to be X. chinensis by molecular methods.

In June 2018, an adult specimen of X. chinensis was collected from another site.

 

Sources

 

Cocquempot C, Desbles F, Mouttet R, Valladares L (2019) Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat, 1852), nouvelle espèce invasive pour la France métropolitaine (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Clytini). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 124(1), 27-62.

2018/220 First report of Xylotrechus chinensis in France

 

The NPPO of France recently informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first record of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO Alert List) on its territory. In October 2018, larvae and adults of X. chinensis were found on a mulberry tree (Morus sp.) in a private garden in Sète (Hérault department). The pest was identified on the basis of its morphological characteristics. The origin of this outbreak is unknown. Surveys are being carried out to delimit the infested area and determine appropriate phytosanitary measures.

 

The pest status of Xylotrechus chinensis in France is officially declared as: Transient, actionable, under surveillance.

 

Sources

 

NPPO of France (2018-10).

2018/157 Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): addition to the EPPO Alert List


Why: Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - Tiger longicorn beetle) is an Asian wood borer which has recently been found in two EPPO countries (Spain, Greece), causing mortality of Morus trees. In its area of origin, other reported hosts include Malus spp. (apple), Pyrus spp. (pear), and Vitis vinifera (grapevine). Considering the importance of the host plants in the EPPO region, and its recent introduction in several places almost simultaneously, the EPPO Secretariat considered that X. chinensis should be added to the EPPO Alert List.


Where: X. chinensis originates from East Asia. In Spain, it was first found in 2013 in Cataluña where it is considered to be established, and in 2018 it was also observed in Communidad Valenciana. In Greece, the pest was discovered in 2017 near the harbour of Heraklion in Crete.
EPPO region: Spain (Cataluña, Communidad Valenciana), Greece (Crete only).
Asia: China (Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizhang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu, Shikoku), Korea (Dem. People's Republic of), Korea (Republic of), Taiwan.
In Japan, some authors consider that two subspecies (X. chinensis kobayashii and X. chinensis kurosawai) are present on the archipelago. However, the status of these subspecies needs to be clarified.


On which plants: Morus spp. (mulberries), in particular M. alba, M. bombycis, M. nigra are considered as major hosts. Malus spp. (apple), Pyrus spp. (pear), and Vitis vinifera (grapevine) are considered as hosts in some publications but without direct evidence. In preliminary experiments conducted in Spain on V. vinifera plants with trunks of less than 5 cm diameter, X. chinensis did not use them as host plants.

Damage: X. chinensis is not reported as a pest in China. In Spain and Greece, infestations and damage were reported only from mulberry trees. Feeding activity of larvae disrupts the transportation of water and nutrients in the tree, which results in a gradual weakening of the tree that can result in its death. Infested trees exhibit multiple exit holes.
Studies on the life history of X. chinensis have been conducted in Japan and in Cataluña. X. chinensis is univoltine (one generation per year). Adults emerge from June to August (mostly in July in Cataluña) through circular exit holes (5-6 mm diameter). Adults (about 15-25 mm long) are black and yellow, mimicking the appearance of a hornet. Eggs (about 2 mm long, 0.7 mm wide) are white, elongated and rounded at poles. Each female can lay about 80 eggs throughout its life time. Immediately after hatching, larvae bore into the bark and enter the phloem and xylem of mulberry trees, either along the trunks or at the base of the main branches. Cracks in the bark and frass may be observed. Mature or old trees are preferred. In Spain and Greece, the pest was reported to infest healthy trees, but larvae may also develop in cut trees. X. chinensis overwinters in the wood of its host trees as larvae. At the end of spring when larvae have finished their development, they tunnel a new cavity into the xylem where they pupate. The life cycle lasts for one year.


Pictures are available in the EPPO Global Database: https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/XYLOCH


Dissemination: There is little information about the natural spread of the pest, but adults can fly. Females are attracted to males by a male pheromone. Over long distances, trade of infested plants, wood and wood products can disseminate X. chinensis. On at least 3 occasions, the pest has been intercepted in trade. In 2007, Germany intercepted X. chinensis on wood packaging material (box) imported from China, from which 2 live beetles emerged. In 2011, USA intercepted the pest on wooden spools holding steel wire rope imported from China. In 2017, Germany intercepted again X. chinensis in a container of wooden decoration items (made of Betula and Salix – which are not considered hosts).


Pathways: Plants for planting, wood, wood packaging material (including dunnage), wood chips from countries where X. chinensis occurs.


Possible risks: Morus trees are widely distributed in the EPPO region where they are grown as ornamentals, as well as for their edible fruit, wood and foliage (for animal feed). They are also present in forests. In addition, there is a marginal cultivation for silkworm feeding for example in Turkey and Central Asia. In the infested area in Cataluña, up to 45% of mulberry trees were recorded as severely infested and tree mortality was observed. Infested trees are more prone to wind breakage, which may be problematic where trees are used in parks and along streets. Wood quality is also affected. So far, X. chinensis has not been reported on apple, pear and grapevine in the Spanish and Greek outbreaks, but these hosts have a major economic importance in the EPPO region. Control is difficult as the insect spends most of its life cycle hidden in the wood. Possible control options include removal of infested trees, insecticide sprays on the trunks to prevent oviposition, or insecticide trunk injection to kill larvae. Sexual confusion may be considered as a male pheromone has been identified. In Cataluña, a native wasp, Stephanus serrator (Hymenoptera: Stephanidae), is considered as a possible parasitoid of X. chinensis. Finally, its recent introduction into two EPPO countries, the observation of tree mortality, and the fact that X. chinensis has been intercepted in wood packaging material suggest that particular attention should be paid to X. chinensis to prevent its further spread within the EPPO region.


Sources
Benker U (2008) Stowaways in wood packaging material. Current situation in Bavaria. Forstschutz Aktuell 4, 30–31.
CBP (2011) U.S. Customs and Border Protection. https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/philly-cbp-intercepts-nations-first-xylotrechus-chinensis-beetle
Danilevsky M (2018) Catalogue of Palaearctic Cerambycoidea, 6. http://www.cerambycidae.net/catalog.pdf
Han Y & Lee D (2010) Taxonomic review of the genus Xylotrechus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) in Korea with a newly recorded species. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 49(2), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.2.069
Leivadara E, Leivadaras I, Vontas I, Trichas A, Simoglou K, Roditakis E, Avtzis DN (2018) First record of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Greece and in the EPPO region. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 48(2), 277–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12468
Lin M (2014) Some new localities of Chinese longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Les Cahiers Magellanes, NS, 16, 110–150.
Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111–133. https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2013.11.1.061
Makihara H (1979) Tribe Clytini of Okinawa Prefecture (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Esaki 14, 149–173. http://www.cerambycoidea.com/titles/makihara1979.pdf
Sarto i Monteys V, Torras i Tutusaus G (2018) A new alien invasive longhorn beetle, Xylotrechus chinensis (Cerambycidae), is infesting mulberries in Catalonia (Spain). Insects 9(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020052
Sarto i Monteys V (2018) El escarabajo-avispa, nueva especie invasora en Europa. Adelantos Digital, 1–6. http://www.adelantosdigital.com/web/escarabajo-avispa-nueva-especie-invasora-europa/
Schrader G (JKI) (2017) Express – PRA zu Xylotrechus chinensis. https://pflanzengesundheit.julius-kuehn.de/dokumente/upload/b75e3_xylotrechus-chinensis_express-pra.pdf
EPPO RS 2018/157
Panel review date - Entry date 2018-08

2018/156 First report of Xylotrechus chinensis in Crete, Greece


In spring 2017, mulberry trees (Morus sp.) near the harbour of Heraklion in Crete (Greece) were found to be heavily infested by a cerambycid species. The pest was identified as Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – Tiger longicorn beetle) by morphological and molecular methods. So far, about 200 trees have been recorded as infested by X. chinensis. Of these trees, about 15% exhibited complete desiccation while the rest exhibited typical symptoms of infestation (e.g. exit holes). Infested trees are being removed and destroyed to try to eradicate the outbreak. It is considered that the pest may have been present since 2014-2015.


The situation of Xylotrechus chinensis in Greece can be described as follows: Present, restricted distribution, under official control.


Source:
Leivadara E, Leivadaras I, Vontas I, Trichas A, Simoglou K, Roditakis E, Avtzis DN (2018) First record of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Greece and in the EPPO region. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 48(2), 277–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12468

 

Pictures:
Xylotrechus chinensis. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/XYLOCH/photos

2018/155 First report of Xylotrechus chinensis in Spain


Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – Tiger longicorn beetle) is a wood borer originating in Eastern Asia which has recently been found in Spain, first in Cataluña and then in Communidad Valenciana.


Cataluña


Adults of X. chinensis were first observed in Cataluña in July 2013, which suggests that the species was probably introduced in 2012 or earlier. The insect is considered to be established in an area located 12-15 km to the North-West of Barcelona city within the district of Valles Occidental. Its presence was recorded in October 2014 in the towns of Cerdanyola del Vallès, Badia del Vallès and Barberà del Vallès (Province of Barcelona). In February 2018, X. chinensis was also reported from the town of Ripollet. As of July 2018, the pest had been detected in 5 municipalities covering 58 km2. Damage caused by the wood boring larvae was observed on mulberry trees (Morus alba, M. nigra). Both tree species are commonly planted in private gardens, recreational areas and along the streets. Depending on the towns concerned, between 10 and 45% of mulberry trees surveyed were found to be infested. Infested trees are weakened and finally die. Municipalities affected have initiated control with insecticide treatments by endotherapy, and removal of the most affected trees.


Communidad Valenciana


In June 2018, a phytosanitary company informed the Regional Plant Protection Service of the presence of damage on Morus sp. and of an adult X. chinensis in the municipality of Quartell (Province of Valencia). A delimiting survey conducted in July 2018 found 11 Morus trees infested and one adult beetle. Identification of the pest was confirmed by the national reference laboratory. Further surveys detected the pest in Sagunto (Province of Valencia) and Almenara (Province of Castellón). A preliminary Pest Risk Assessment is being conducted to decide on phytosanitary measures to be applied.


The pest status of Xylotrechus chinensis in Spain is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the country.


Source:
NPPO of Spain (2018-08).


INTERNET
Sarto i Monteys V (2018) El escarabajo-avispa, nueva especie invasora en Europa. Adelantos Digital 1–6. http://www.adelantosdigital.com/web/escarabajo-avispa-nueva-especie-invasora-europa/
Sarto i Monteys V, Torras i Tutusaus G (2018) A new alien invasive longhorn beetle, Xylotrechus chinensis (Cerambycidae), is infesting mulberries in Catalonia (Spain). Insects 9(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020052


Pictures:
Xylotrechus chinensis. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/XYLOCH/photos